October 16, 2016

Supernova – fission explosion? A precursor neutron star?


Cassiopeia A        NASA / JPL/ Caltech

Might one consider any SN1987 precursor star as a predominantly fusion star, as a source of energy; wherein one has gravitational collapse to a critical mass density, and then fission process commencing and predominating? Higher mass element nucleosynthesis would require free neutrons; thus wouldn’t nuclei fission be required?

If there is no detectable precursor star, might this be consistent with just a solo neutron star acquiring additional mass, or internal dynamics leading to run away explosive fission process i.e. supernova? Perhaps an internal/external circulating plasma in magnetic field of such neutron star, and redistribution of energy (magnetic reconnect – entanglement ?), leading to instabilities, such as localized change in neutron density?

What might be consistent with a supernova precursor being a neutron star? Since the supernova database continues to get bigger (including association with most long duration GRB), might one eventually match it to x-ray binary database (Chandra) in order to notice overlap of any SN with planar patch for x-ray binary? Then, if practical, see if a binary star is still there. If present, then might SN have originated from secondary compact object of x-ray binary?

Could one then consider the odds of any such alleged association, by comparing respective x-ray binary and gamma ray burst databases for association; such latter comparison, currently null?

Might another approach to any supernova remnant SNR, be to look for any motion of luminous star very near to SN1987 co-ordinates; within 1/2 arcsecond? That is, SN are anisotropic, as revealed by their effective absence in globular clusters. Therefore would any stellar motion  be evidence of a precursor binary? Also utilize infrared spectroscopy, looking for any remnant object, as elaborated on, below?

Shock waves expanding at 10s of thausands km/sec; whereas stellar natal kick might be at just ~1000 km/sec.? For the latter velocity of any possible surviving star of 1987 SN possible binary, for over 30 years, at a distance of ~165,0oo lyrs, what would be the angular displacement; discernable?

As critical mass density (sufficient for sustained chain reaction)  is reached, might one also have an energy density associated with eventual red dwarf formation? Perhaps the latter not just a remnant, but consistent with a fission process, contributing additionally (or solely) to what we detect as a supernova explosion?

Stars contain an abundance of iron (as per spectroscopy), not unlike earth and stellar nebula. If cosmic rays are predominantly iron nuclei, them might this also be consistent with a supernova fission process, including (mainly?) iron? But where is iron in a SN explosion? One has evidence of nickel and cobalt; both next (in atomic number and weight) to iron in Periodic Table. Are iron nuclei being utilized and consumed as a fissionable fuel in such SN explosion and element synthesis?

Might such considered fission process (perhaps iron doped with .1% uranium?), trigger off a supernova explosion, rather than just being an accompanying process? Might additional energy released be mainly massive neutrinos? In terms of energetics, is most of energy released in supernova explosion from neutrinos? Does fission process generate more neutrinos, as well as heat, than fusion?

Is the energy scale for SN limited to just 2 fermion generations (i.e muons) or might one have higher energy levels associated with fermion mass spectrum? What energy (mass density) scale is associated with (if) neutrino trapping; approximately same as for neutron (nucleon) degeneracy? But less than short duration GRB energy scale?

If higher energy scale, as for fermion mass spectrum, then one would seem to have left over higher generation massive neutrinos. Assuming no decay nor annihilation, and comparatively limited nucleon absorption, might our galaxy (including dark matter halo?), Large Magellanic Cloud, and solar system’s neutrino belt, contain a smaller fractional number of such more massive neutrinos, in addition to electron neutrinos?

Might a supernova explosion description be more than just release of gravitational potential energy, and more than just a bounce off an energy (i.e. mass density) nucleon (?) surface (simulations not consistent with such bounce?); and more than just a fusion process, since fuel has been markedly reduced? Instead might such explosion represent a qualitative and quantitative shift to a predominant fission process, with also perhaps a remnant, suggestive of such switch?

What is the most likely outcome of a supernova – no remnant? Might any database of supernova remnants (SNR) contain a compact object; a significant portion of original massive star? Would a pulsar be part of any such SNR database? Might likelihood of compact object be mass (10-15 solar mass?) dependent? What percentage of neutron stars are pulsars? If there were a supernova remnant, might it be of a lesser mass, such as red dwarf mass?

Or if a neutron star were a SN1987 remnant, then wouldn’t there be central x-ray detection, from strong magnetic field, near infall to magnetic pole? Might one have both a SN precursor neutron star, and also a somewhat lesser mass NS? But would there be sufficient fuel for SN in such scenario?

Could a supernova explosion sometimes leave behind a red dwarf remnant (i.e. SNR) fission star (such as .04 of 4 solar mass precursor), usually detectable only in infrared? Would infrared spectroscopy enable detection of such an object?

For example, might infrared spectroscopy distinguish between heat of expanding gas shell and an interior remnant source? Even if the site of SN1987 is obscured by gas clouds, inter-stellar debris etc., still might infrared spectroscopy reveal an object at SN1987 co-ordinates? Whereas gas clouds, and other diffuse infrared sources, might just reveal a slight non-specific pattern.

Thus would any such infrared spectroscopy detection (and thus revealed object?) seem consistent with the significance of a fission process in initiation of explosiveness of supernova phenomena?

Periodic Table

Chandra images

Theory of core-collapse of supernovae



December 28, 2013

Measuring temperature of space via molecular vibration etc.? Dark Age Cryochemistry?

Might one utilize laser infrared spectroscopy to measure approximate temperature of space? Have a suitable container of simple molecules, and measure motion (stretching, vibration, perhaps rotation), utilizing infrared spectroscopy. Correlate such set up with the coldest temperature we can obtain in earth laboratory. Is there just a linear relationship between temperature and molecular vibration? Perhaps utilize Japanese space station module, and any external platform, together with internal residing laser and infrared spectroscopy. Even simpler would be setting some limits vis-a-vis placing an air filled container on outside platform, and seeing if nitrogen (etc.) component liquifies or not; indicating a limit of ~77 degrees kelvin; 90 degrees kelvin for oxygen liquification. How close to absolute zero is temperature of space?

Also If comet 67P surface ice (or sub-surface) is 4 Byr old, then might it be like alleged 4 Byr old Martian rock ice? Utilize infrared spectroscopy to measure hydrogen bonding between molecules, indicating mainly vibration, and perhaps some rotation. Then as above using space station as temperature control experiment, with external platform or bay, or tether; then do infrared spectroscopy to measure isolated temperature effect upon earth ice hydrogen intermolecular bond.

Also cryochemistry might shed light on the Dark Age (~300-400 Myrs after recombination at 380 kyrs). That is, did just neutral hydrogen form, or did molecular H_2 form quickly? Mass density would seem a factor. Also temperature is a general background catalyst. More specifically, one could ionize hydrogen with a laser for transparent canister on platform outside of space station. Then use infrared spectroscopy to see how long it takes for molecular hydrogen to form. So can such simple experiments outside of space station shed light on Dark Age cryochemistry of hydrogen?  TMM

Also see blog: Hematite, photosynthesis, silicates – connections? Martian rock ice?



June 29, 2012

Hematite, photosynthesis, silicates – connections? Martian rock ice? No sedimentary layers? olivine on Mars

Might hematite be the only marker of eroded ancient sedimentary seabed sites? Has billions of years of erosive wind action resulted in an unconformity? That is, might significant sedimentary layers not be found, nor present, anywhere on Mars, secondary to erosive wind effect over billions of  years?  Or can sedementa:y rock be formed from below, due to sulfate fusion of layers, giving a sedimentary app:arance? Consistent with the prediction of no hematite at deeper bored levels? Might Gale crater be a counter example to such lack of sedimentary layer scenario, or contrarily, an aeolian effect?

Could one integrate an area for abundance of hematite, and thus oxygen content? Thus inferring the amount of oxygenation for given seas’ volume, or just per hematite distribution? The latter would supposedly denote only areas, within geographical seas, for photosynthesis, since no significant aeolian re-distribution of hematite. Then would this set limits on amount of photosynthesis that occurred? Also would any oxygenation of martian atmosphere be very limited, in light of very slow oxygenation of our atmosphere?

Would widespread prevalence of unweatherized olivine on Mars, without secondary mineralization, be consistent with most of surface water disappearing very early; hence likewise for surface life? Thus a constrain on life’s duration on Mars; a fast start and finish?

Or might a thick atmosphere (protection from UV radiation), and intermittent dew and/or frost be sufficient for origin of life on a dryer surface? Would the latter dryer surface be consistent with importance of stability in the preservation of any newly formed molecular combinations, in a transient aqueous environment?

Also Tharsis plateau volcanic complex is of a shield volcanic nature, and not explosive. Hence consistent with no viscous silicates (silicon oxides), and hence consistent with no significant past oxygenated atmospheric weathering effect for Mars.

For any so-called martian rock ice to form sub-surface, still a significant vapor pressure and thus significant atmosphere (1/10 bar?) must have been present.

Perhaps micro frozen ‘fossils’ might be found in such rock ice. Not multi-cellular, since not enough time for multi-cellularity to evolve. For example, Animalia and metazoa evolved much later on earth. One could drill into sub-surface smooth (not a glass from amorphous rapid cooling?) martian rock ice, and compare amperage etc. to a similar fine bore drilling for earth ice; the difference being proportional to density. Also infrared spectroscopy for such probe? Thus might such martian rock ice formation be considered as a gradual ongoing solid physical phase change?

Would a gradual increase in hydrogen bond strength for between water molecules then account for lack of sublimation of such ice, both sub-surface and on the surface, in part at mid latitude, and also at North Pole especially? That is, why is there snow at all at North Pole, especially in summer? ~6 millibars should result in sublimation of snow at the pole. Would the retention of such not so thick snow be consistent with increased (covalent ?) strenght of hydrogen bond for between water molecules, not only sub-surface, but also for surface water ice/snow, any where on Mars? Might one utilize orbital infrared spectroscopy of residual polar cap snow, to look for such increased hydrogen bond strength for between water molecules?

So billion year old effect of increasing bond strength and stiffness (i.e. bending, stretching) for hydrogen bond (i.e. for between water molecules) – giving almost covalent bond strength? There is wide variation in hydrogen bond strength.

Infrared spectroscopy measures vibration modes of water, and all modes of vibration are infrared active. Then compare such infrared signature of bond strength to earth ice. Also such martian rock ice would look like rock, and seem hard like rock, but much lighter; consistent with lower density than rock. Also a different melting temperature from earth ice, and becomes mottled from exposure to ultraviolet light. Likewise for any Martian meteorites on earth ; so slicing, and looking for any pitting after uv exposure, with comparative controls, would seem to confirm it’s origin. TMM

olivine on Mars

Martian sub-surface ice, mid latitude



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