October 16, 2016

Supernova – fission explosion? A precursor neutron star?


Cassiopeia A        NASA / JPL/ Caltech

Might one consider any SN1987 precursor star as a predominantly fusion star, as a source of energy; wherein one has gravitational collapse to a critical mass density, and then fission process commencing and predominating? Higher mass element nucleosynthesis would require free neutrons; thus wouldn’t nuclei fission be required?

If there is no detectable precursor star, might this be consistent with just a solo neutron star acquiring additional mass, or internal dynamics leading to run away explosive fission process i.e. supernova? Perhaps an internal/external circulating plasma in magnetic field of such neutron star, and redistribution of energy (magnetic reconnect – entanglement ?), leading to instabilities, such as localized change in neutron density?

What might be consistent with a supernova precursor being a neutron star? Since the supernova database continues to get bigger (including association with most long duration GRB), might one eventually match it to x-ray binary database (Chandra) in order to notice overlap of any SN with planar patch for x-ray binary? Then, if practical, see if a binary star is still there. If present, then might SN have originated from secondary compact object of x-ray binary?

Could one then consider the odds of any such alleged association, by comparing respective x-ray binary and gamma ray burst databases for association; such latter comparison, currently null?

Might another approach to any supernova remnant SNR, be to look for any motion of luminous star very near to SN1987 co-ordinates; within 1/2 arcsecond? That is, SN are anisotropic, as revealed by their effective absence in globular clusters. Therefore would any stellar motion  be evidence of a precursor binary? Also utilize infrared spectroscopy, looking for any remnant object, as elaborated on, below?

Shock waves expanding at 10s of thausands km/sec; whereas stellar natal kick might be at just ~1000 km/sec.? For the latter velocity of any possible surviving star of 1987 SN possible binary, for over 30 years, at a distance of ~165,0oo lyrs, what would be the angular displacement; discernable?

As critical mass density (sufficient for sustained chain reaction)  is reached, might one also have an energy density associated with eventual red dwarf formation? Perhaps the latter not just a remnant, but consistent with a fission process, contributing additionally (or solely) to what we detect as a supernova explosion?

Stars contain an abundance of iron (as per spectroscopy), not unlike earth and stellar nebula. If cosmic rays are predominantly iron nuclei, them might this also be consistent with a supernova fission process, including (mainly?) iron? But where is iron in a SN explosion? One has evidence of nickel and cobalt; both next (in atomic number and weight) to iron in Periodic Table. Are iron nuclei being utilized and consumed as a fissionable fuel in such SN explosion and element synthesis?

Might such considered fission process (perhaps iron doped with .1% uranium?), trigger off a supernova explosion, rather than just being an accompanying process? Might additional energy released be mainly massive neutrinos? In terms of energetics, is most of energy released in supernova explosion from neutrinos? Does fission process generate more neutrinos, as well as heat, than fusion?

Is the energy scale for SN limited to just 2 fermion generations (i.e muons) or might one have higher energy levels associated with fermion mass spectrum? What energy (mass density) scale is associated with (if) neutrino trapping; approximately same as for neutron (nucleon) degeneracy? But less than short duration GRB energy scale?

If higher energy scale, as for fermion mass spectrum, then one would seem to have left over higher generation massive neutrinos. Assuming no decay nor annihilation, and comparatively limited nucleon absorption, might our galaxy (including dark matter halo?), Large Magellanic Cloud, and solar system’s neutrino belt, contain a smaller fractional number of such more massive neutrinos, in addition to electron neutrinos?

Might a supernova explosion description be more than just release of gravitational potential energy, and more than just a bounce off an energy (i.e. mass density) nucleon (?) surface (simulations not consistent with such bounce?); and more than just a fusion process, since fuel has been markedly reduced? Instead might such explosion represent a qualitative and quantitative shift to a predominant fission process, with also perhaps a remnant, suggestive of such switch?

What is the most likely outcome of a supernova – no remnant? Might any database of supernova remnants (SNR) contain a compact object; a significant portion of original massive star? Would a pulsar be part of any such SNR database? Might likelihood of compact object be mass (10-15 solar mass?) dependent? What percentage of neutron stars are pulsars? If there were a supernova remnant, might it be of a lesser mass, such as red dwarf mass?

Or if a neutron star were a SN1987 remnant, then wouldn’t there be central x-ray detection, from strong magnetic field, near infall to magnetic pole? Might one have both a SN precursor neutron star, and also a somewhat lesser mass NS? But would there be sufficient fuel for SN in such scenario?

Could a supernova explosion sometimes leave behind a red dwarf remnant (i.e. SNR) fission star (such as .04 of 4 solar mass precursor), usually detectable only in infrared? Would infrared spectroscopy enable detection of such an object?

For example, might infrared spectroscopy distinguish between heat of expanding gas shell and an interior remnant source? Even if the site of SN1987 is obscured by gas clouds, inter-stellar debris etc., still might infrared spectroscopy reveal an object at SN1987 co-ordinates? Whereas gas clouds, and other diffuse infrared sources, might just reveal a slight non-specific pattern.

Thus would any such infrared spectroscopy detection (and thus revealed object?) seem consistent with the significance of a fission process in initiation of explosiveness of supernova phenomena?

Periodic Table

Chandra images

Theory of core-collapse of supernovae



December 8, 2015

Red dwarf – fission star?

Filed under: Letters from Ionia — Tags: , , — zankaon @ 1:10 pm

Globular clusters form early (stellar age of ~12 byrs ?). Do such globular clusters have a strong infrared signature? If not, then consistent with lack of early red dwarf formation? Also if nearby Proxima centauri is a red dwarf, then such triplet system would not seem that old; ~4Byrs? Hence might red dwarfs form at stage of maximum star formation, at redshift z~2-3? But then not enough time to use up all of hydrogen fuel, if fusion to fission (i.e non-helium synthesis) star scenario is entertained.

Might infrared spectroscopy of red dwarf model – Proxima centauri be useful? However do cooler stars, such as spectral class M infrared dwarfs, have greater number of spectral lines, relating to cooler surface temperature, as compared to G spectral class of our Sun?

Might red dwarfs initially form as fission (i.e. non-fusion) stars, wherein a physical phase change, associated with increased mass density and/or pressure increase, gives a built in solid-like, or liquid interior phase change? For example Proxima centauri has mass density ~40x that of our Sun, with ~.12 of solar mass and ~1/7 of solar diameter. Mean density increases for stars of decreasing mass, as manifested at lower right on H-R diagram for main sequence stars. Also might some x-ray binares have a red dwarf as a companion, dumping gas onto such compact; hence consistent with fluid exterior for such red dwarf. However one could still have a physical phase change for interior; hence consistent with infrared signature.

So is Proxima centauri a good nearby optical model for a red dwarf; the latter most typical for stars? And is such strong infrared signature and high mass density suggestive of internal alternative nuclear chemistry interactions, with a possible physical phase change, with no helium synthesis; rather a fission star, especially for a solid-like interior?

For x-ray binary, might one have accreting mass, both gaseous and even liquid outer core, being drawn off from red dwarf toward compact object (ss433 x-ray binary? )? Might one have residual solid core fission for such red dwarf? Might it constitute a residual red dwarf for eclipsing x-ray binary? Has it’s x-ray profile (from core?) been largely unaffected?

If all red dwarfs are fission stars, then signifcant gamma rays and x-rays? So in addition to difference in infrared signature for fission vs fusion (i.e. sun like?) stars, might there also be a difference in x-ray signature, related to gamma rays for fission red dwarf stars? Also if gamma ray pulsars have an infrared signature, might not only the interior processes be similar to a red dwarf, but also might they be red dwarfs?

Might red dwarf star have a rotating solid core? A fission core, detectable with infrared spectroscopy; that lasts essentially indefinitely? For example, might IR spectroscopy detect fission core for ss433 companion of x-ray binary?

If red dwarfs (with small envelope?) have a solid fission core; then doesn’t one have an expanded stellar definition? Might natural plutonium then be widespread, since originally from such fission core stars? Or is sufficient plutonium burned in such ‘breeder’ fission core stars? For fission star, then element synthesis would not stop with stability of iron nucleus.

Might our whole understanding of what delimits (defines) a star need reassesment? For example, Proxima centauri has a very low mass of .12 solar mass, low volume, and hence high mass density. Also a low surface temperature. So if Proxima has a significant infrared signature, suggesting a non-fusion star, and perhaps solid core, then low mass, volume, and low temperature might not seem so significant for star-dom status. But perhaps mass density, and pressure (for small volume?) relate to a so-called fission star status. Also can even a less massive Brown dwarf, if having an infrared signature similar to red dwarfs, be classified as a very low mass fission object? So is what’s going on in the interior is that which defines a star?

Might equation of state (mass density and pressure) be irrelevant? That is, for iron core with 0.1 % uranium, would this be sufficient to account for observed infrared signature of a red dwarf?

Fusion, most efficient for a fluid core; and fission most suitable for rotating solidified stellar core? Can one have fission for just a liquid core; perhaps for brown dwarf? Might one even have a heterogeneous core, with liquid ‘lakes’ and some fusion, together with surrounding solid state fission core, generating copious heat, sufficient to maintain such ‘lakes’? But would there be sufficient fuel for such fusion ‘lake’ reactors? In principle, might neutrino flux distinguish a fusion reactor from fission reactor core, since associated more so with latter?

Might brown dwarfs be fission core reactor stars with (or without?) some ‘lakes’? How does infrared image of brown dwarf compare to that of red dwarf, and to that of less massive Jupiter? Might such brown dwarf appear in infrared more like a red dwarf; hence consistent with fission core?

If most stars are red dwarfs, then do most stars have a fission core? Thus on H-R diagram, lower right would constitute majority of stars – red dwarfs? And middle main sequence constituting a lesser number of fusion stars, like our sun; or is our star a mixture of fusion and fission processes? On such diagram does one measure bolometric luminosity; but not inclusive of infrared, wherein most of energy is radiated for a red dwarf?

Are any hot jupiters associated with a red dwarf, based on infrared signal? How close to red dwarf of .12 solar mass, would a hot Jupiter’s orbit be; inside corona (flares for Proxima centauri, indicative of energy re-distribution in magnetic field via magnetic reconnect)?

Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

If fusion stars, fission stars, brown dwarfs(?), and Jupiter, all have a magnetic field, then might all require a circulating liquid/solid core; or is a plasma circulation sufficient?  also see zankaon web site.   TMM

‘Lucy in the sky’ with plutonium ….. ?

October 3, 2015

Gamma ray pulsars; a test for separate sources? Or internal physical phase change? MSP in globular clusters?

Approximately 5% of pulsars are gamma ray pulsars? Why? Even if electron degeneracy (effectively filling phase space?) suggests a surface, wouldn’t a given mass density imply nuclear processes for interior of compact object? So why would a gamma ray subset differ from other pulsars? The assumption is that there is only one source for gamma rays emission. But could the companion for example be a red dwarf if gamma ray emission were associated with a fission star with a solid core?

Might one indirectly ascertain an edge on binary, assuming a separate gamma ray source, with eclipsing of pulsar by separate gamma ray source? That is, might such gamma ray source interfere with the radio pulsar signal, for such edge on view; resulting in a periodic noisy radio signal distortion? Then might such data base examination, and accumulating larger set, suggest two separate sources for gamma ray and radio pulsar respective signals?

Might LS1 +61° 303 gamma ray binary, with gamma flux modulation varying with orbital period of 26.5 days, possibly be a converse consideration, wherein a gamma ray source were somewhat affected; more affected if such binary were a pulsar? But are only ~1/1000 gamma ray binaries sources also pulsarsIf the same source, might gamma rays suggest a possible physical phase change for interior of a compact object? That is, might one have in part a solid – like interior portion, in addition to a fluid component? But could one have any solid-like description for nucleons (quanta)? For example, perhaps a pressure related increased viscosity (?) for nucleon (neutron fluid with protons) fluid, sufficient for solid-like rapidly rotating central region? Or higher mass fermion generations? Hence enhancement of magnetic field, and perhaps physical phase change (from increased pressure?), resulting in additional nuclear processes and associated gamma ray production? Thus might one have physical phase change just from increased pressure, such as demonstrated with diamond anvil? Or alternatively perhaps just central mass density increase leading to additional nuclear processes? So rendering the equation of state in different ways?

Might equation of state (mass density and pressure) be irrelevant? That is, for iron core with 1% uranium, would this be sufficient to account for observed infrared signature of a red dwarf?

Perhaps solid-like or gel-like physical phase transition, such as change in order parameter, liquid to gel-like; or such as changing precession of nucleons, with spin and magnetic moment, in magnetic field? But the latter is not a physical phase change? Or physical phase change as symmetry breaking? Would any physical phase change be of sufficient energetics; leading to additional nuclear processes associated with gamma ray production; or is energetics not a consideration?

Might glitches be related to vortices pinning and unpinning, but to an interior solid-like surface or gel, rapidly rotating as a unit; thus obviating the necessity of an external solid crust? Is it more plausible that all (most?) of magnetic field strength of pulsar comes from such rapidly rotating solid-like (gel?) core, rather than from precursor collapsing massive star?

Would such solid-like core ensure a more constrained milieu for gamma ray production? Analogous to mathematical existence proof? That is, not describing a specific physical phase change, or nuclear interaction, associated with gamma rays; rather describing a general milieu in which production of gamma rays would seem to ensue.

Like for black hole, might rapid rotation of pulsar, and just associated electric and magnetic fields, be insufficient for copious gamma rays generation? Rather additional interior nuclear processes (at higher mass density, or just at increased pressure?); the latter associated with a physical phase change, required for significant gamma rays production?

Does a gamma ray pulsar have an infrared sigmature? If so, might interior processes not be that different from a red dwarf? In fact, might a gamma ray pulsar be a red dwarf?

Is magnetic field strength greater for gamma ray pulsar than for just a pulsar? Further suggesting perhaps changes in conduction and/or circulation for a nucleon fluid with conductive impurities (such as plasma wakefield accelerator, with cycling of charges giving a wave for protons to acellerate on?); or physical phase change, giving more central rapid rotation, as a unit i.e. solid-like?

Might one experimentally ascertain what might enhance a magnetic field? For example would a solid-like rapid rotating core, of different volumes, enhance such field; as opposed to a plasma nucleon fluid (i.e. degenerate neutron fluid) with varying impurities’ concentration? Hence indirect hints as to general nature of interior? Or is collapsing progenitor star the only basis for magnetic field strength of a neutron star?

Need such high mass density object suggest only a neutron star? Is a crust essential to alternative models of pulsars, and of any star (white dwarf?) in general? For example, might one render a pulsar as a dark star with increasing gravitational potential, and associated higher mass density, and with very intense magnetic field? Might there be very little difference (other than mass) between gamma rays pulsar (with no crust) and dark star with no horizon, or red dwarf?

Also a number of MSP millisecond pulsars have been detected in globular clusters; how is this possible, if from supernova asymmetrical explosions long ago, since globular clusters are old, and no massive new star formation? That is, even if MSP (binary system?) were older, it should have been ejected; which is consistent with few compact objects in such globular clusters. However need pulsars (and in particular, MSP) all result just from supernova explosions, and from mass inflow from a binary, as considered for MSP in globular clusters?

More specifically, might magnetic pole of precursor star wander, and eventually have a small incidence angle i.e. near to rotation axis; thus seemingly resulting in a shorter period MSP, with no change in star’s rotation? However even though angular velocity is less; still unchanging frequency period? Thus still not consistent with MSP; nor obviating necessity for supernova or a binary companion off loading mass? So still necessity of interior of neutron star as source of such gamma ray pulsar MSP?

What is infrared signature of such globular cluster MSP? Might it have infrared, as well as gamma ray, signature; both suggestive of interior processes that differ from our fusion star Sun? Might such gamma ray MSP be a red dwarf, or interior processes similar to a red dwarf?

Isabelle A. Grenier, Alice K. Harding, arXiv:1509.08823v1 astro-ph.HE 29 Sep 2015, Gamma rays pulsars: a gold mine.

Guillaume Dubus,  arXiv:1307.7083v2 astro-ph HE Sept 5 2013. Gamma rays binaries and related systems.

A. Akmal,  V. R. Pandharipande,  D.G. Ravenhall,  The equation of state of nuclear matter and neutron star structure, arXiv:nucl-th/9804027v1 April 13, 1998.

Gibley E., Nature, vol 526, p. 173, Oct 8 2015. plasma wakefield accelerators.

June 9, 2013

Galactic bulge stars – red dwarf fission stars?

Filed under: Letters from Ionia — Tags: , , , , — zankaon @ 9:17 pm

Would any lack of gas, molecular clouds, or dust, for our galactic bulge, be consistent with an older origin of such more central structure in our galaxy? If stars have not been well resolved; might yet one have a strong infrared signature? If so, might the latter be consistent with so-called fission stars, which would last almost indefinitely? Or are red dwarfs very old?

Might this be related to opaque (photons and ionized hydrogen interaction – giving a pre-recomination appearance) appearance of such bulge of our galaxy? That is, an overall infrared signature, and slight optical detection, of a vast array of older red dwarfs in bulge of our galaxy? Also globular clusters form early (stellar age up to ~12 byrs?). Might such clusters not have a strong infrared signature, consistent with no older red dwarfs? Or did red dwarfs form just at maximum star formation at z~2-3? Might red dwarf fission stars have any strong X-ray signature secondary to gamma rays production associated with fission? TMM

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