zankaon

March 3, 2017

Earliest life forms?

Filed under: Letters from Ionia — Tags: , — zankaon @ 3:27 pm

Recent reports suggest microbial life in ancient hydrothermal vents in rocks ~3.77- 4.28 Byrs ago – Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt (NSB). However is there the possibility of a later date infusion of fluid rock material?

For example, for Gunflint trail formation and vicinity, one has ancient shield rocks, but with later volcanic intrusion rocks, associates with the Mid-continental rift ~1 Byrs ago.

Just one billion years is an enormous geological time span, wherein almost any thing can occur. Animalia (such as sponges) might have arisen approximately 1 billion years ago; an almost inconceivable span of biological evolutionary time. 

So nature has had an enormous amount of time to try all possibilities. That is, a temporal series can be transformed into an ensemble of all spatial realized states. But is this sufficient? There also must be preservation, stability, allowing for an accumulation of mass, in regards to structural or functional elements; such as stabi!ity of amide bond for between amino acids (condensation dehydration polymer formation)?

For example, adsorption to a surface, or confined by gels, and/or a dryer environment. Perhaps nacent pre-biotic chemistry beneath a biofilm of a marine surface? Thus co-evolution of stabilizing preservation conditions, factors etc. would seem to be of equal importance.

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-39117523

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midcontinent_Rift_System#/editor

Astrobiology Science Conference 2017 (LPI Contrib. No. 1965),

https://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/abscicon2017/

PREBIOTIC CHEMISTRY IN CHEMICAL GARDEN STRUCTURES AT HYDROTHERMAL VENTS:  THE IMPORTANCE OF GELS AND GRADIENTS.  L. M. Barge1 , O. Steinbock, J. H. E. Cartwright, NASA , Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109, USA (laura.m.barge@jpl.nasa.gov); Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4390, USA; Instituto Andaluz de  Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC−Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain

February 27, 2017

Entanglement of past, present, and future?

Filed under: Letters from Ionia — Tags: , , — zankaon @ 7:04 pm

Utilizing wide-angle perception i.e. entanglement, might the above three be more inextricably intertwined than thought?

That is, in addition to our brief moment on the stage of life, might we also be part of a very large set; perhaps even divergent?

If the latter is also so, then might one have reoccurance of the same, and also variants, life experience (genetic and cultural)? This would be consistent with the concept of MRT, Modified Replication Time (1).

For a divergent set, might one transform a temporal series of such life experiences into a spatial ensemble, inclusive of endless repetition of the same life experience, as well as endless variations?

Hence are we limiting our perception in considering just 1 element i.e. self, of perhaps a divergent set? Are we both finite, and also concurrently, infinitesimal? A play that never ends?

… hold infinity in the palm of one’s hand
W. Blake

1. see MRT in SRM Spiral Rotation Model, and on zankaon web page.

February 26, 2017

Imagination – just an epi-phenomenon?

Filed under: Letters from Ionia — Tags: , — zankaon @ 4:40 pm

Might imagination be more than just an apparent extra consequence of a larger more complex brain? That is, perhaps nature has discovered and selected imagination as a stable evolutionary strategy, enhancing replication for more complex cognizant species.

Likewise for more complex cognizant exo-species? Hence, by analysis, is the tradition of storytelling, and it’s sequelae i.e. literature, poetry, and media, widespread throughout the universe?

February 9, 2017

Modeling and gravitational potential tapering – any implications?

Filed under: Letters from Ionia — Tags: , , , — zankaon @ 2:43 pm

Might gravitational potential, instead of inversely dropping off, have a different (exponential like?) tapering off? Differing, electric field, and also radioactivity, appears to suddenly drop off? Thus is there precedence for differences in decreasing field strength, and decrease in other phenomena?

Might such rendering be consistent with the continued apparent gravitational binding of Proxima centauri in it’s triple star system, even though seeming through calculations, being too far away from other 2 stars? Likewise is gravitational potential seemingly too weak, via calculations, to keep our moon in orbit? Hence might our gravitational potential have a different gradual tapering off, not reflected in our calculations or modeling?

Thus rather than inversely dropping off, there would seem to be tapering of such potential far out; for example the Oort cloud, and Proxima centauri with a period of ~500,000 years, consistent with ~15,000 AU distance to alpha centauri; all part of a triple system. And perhaps even further outward – a neutrino belt?

Might more accurate modeling of such potential involve expansion as a series, with just inverse fall off as the zero term? Again tailoring such expansion series to suit any empirical findings, such as above?

Is Proxima centauri’s distant from it’s binary companions at approximately that of Oort cloud? Based on above, it would seem closer in when compared to Oort cloud estimates. Yet might there be the possibility of a large mass nearer to Oort cloud distance?

The Oort cloud (not spherical symmetrical?) is assumed to be comprised of just cometary mass scale. However the potential and curvature at such distant would not be influenced by the mass of objects at such distance. Hence could one have an undetected gas giant (historically related to Uranus’ tilted axis?) at such distance, and even a red dwarf, say .08 solar mass; neither one apparently affecting the rest of our stellar system? Or might long period comets we detect, be the result of (and consistent with) destabilzation by a gas giant or red dwarf nearer to Oort cloud?

A red dwarf mass could be detected in the infrared, including infrared spectroscopy. An invisible gas giant might only be detected by occultation of a background star(s).

December 23, 2016

Infusion of idealism?

Filed under: Letters from Ionia — zankaon @ 3:48 pm

cultural ascension?

October 19, 2016

A sense of rhythm – a stable evolutionary strategy?

Filed under: Letters from Ionia — Tags: , , , — zankaon @ 4:28 pm

Was the first musical instrument, a bone with holes in it i.e. a recorder? Or perhaps beating 1 or 2 bones/sticks on a suitable surface? But not currently for a chimpanzee, since a lack of rhythm for any such activity. Hence the requirement of rhythm to convert noise making to musical sound.

Would chanting (with a nascent sense of rhythm) seem more primitive than commencement of language sounds?

Might a developing rhythmic sign language, enhanced selection for fine motor control, and hence cerebellar development, go hand in hand?

Would a distant journey be easier with a rhythmic cadence, as now?

Was our species’ upside breakout (i.e. dominant population expansion) ~200,000 years ago, related to selection for cerebellar development i.e. new connections?

Hence might rhythm, and accompanying cerebellar brain connections, development, and/or their takeover, be required for initiation of music and language? Thus was the road to music and language a rhythmic one – a stable evolutionary strategy, relating more to cerebellum than just neocortex development?

cerebellum

 

October 16, 2016

Supernova – fission explosion? A precursor neutron star?

 

Cassiopeia A        NASA / JPL/ Caltech

Might one consider any SN1987 precursor star as a predominantly fusion star, as a source of energy; wherein one has gravitational collapse to a critical mass density, and then fission process commencing and predominating? Higher mass element nucleosynthesis would require free neutrons; thus wouldn’t nuclei fission be required?

If there is no detectable precursor star, might this be consistent with just a solo neutron star acquiring additional mass, or internal dynamics leading to run away explosive fission process i.e. supernova? Perhaps an internal/external circulating plasma in magnetic field of such neutron star, and redistribution of energy (magnetic reconnect – entanglement ?), leading to instabilities, such as localized change in neutron density?

What might be consistent with a supernova precursor being a neutron star? Since the supernova database continues to get bigger (including association with most long duration GRB), might one eventually match it to x-ray binary database (Chandra) in order to notice overlap of any SN with planar patch for x-ray binary? Then, if practical, see if a binary star is still there. If present, then might SN have originated from secondary compact object of x-ray binary?

Could one then consider the odds of any such alleged association, by comparing respective x-ray binary and gamma ray burst databases for association; such latter comparison, currently null?

Might another approach to any supernova remnant SNR, be to look for any motion of luminous star very near to SN1987 co-ordinates; within 1/2 arcsecond? That is, SN are anisotropic, as revealed by their effective absence in globular clusters. Therefore would any stellar motion  be evidence of a precursor binary? Also utilize infrared spectroscopy, looking for any remnant object, as elaborated on, below?

Shock waves expanding at 10s of thausands km/sec; whereas stellar natal kick might be at just ~1000 km/sec.? For the latter velocity of any possible surviving star of 1987 SN possible binary, for over 30 years, at a distance of ~165,0oo lyrs, what would be the angular displacement; discernable?

As critical mass density (sufficient for sustained chain reaction)  is reached, might one also have an energy density associated with eventual red dwarf formation? Perhaps the latter not just a remnant, but consistent with a fission process, contributing additionally (or solely) to what we detect as a supernova explosion?

Stars contain an abundance of iron (as per spectroscopy), not unlike earth and stellar nebula. If cosmic rays are predominantly iron nuclei, them might this also be consistent with a supernova fission process, including (mainly?) iron? But where is iron in a SN explosion? One has evidence of nickel and cobalt; both next (in atomic number and weight) to iron in Periodic Table. Are iron nuclei being utilized and consumed as a fissionable fuel in such SN explosion and element synthesis?

Might such considered fission process (perhaps iron doped with .1% uranium?), trigger off a supernova explosion, rather than just being an accompanying process? Might additional energy released be mainly massive neutrinos? In terms of energetics, is most of energy released in supernova explosion from neutrinos? Does fission process generate more neutrinos, as well as heat, than fusion?

Is the energy scale for SN limited to just 2 fermion generations (i.e muons) or might one have higher energy levels associated with fermion mass spectrum? What energy (mass density) scale is associated with (if) neutrino trapping; approximately same as for neutron (nucleon) degeneracy? But less than short duration GRB energy scale?

If higher energy scale, as for fermion mass spectrum, then one would seem to have left over higher generation massive neutrinos. Assuming no decay nor annihilation, and comparatively limited nucleon absorption, might our galaxy (including dark matter halo?), Large Magellanic Cloud, and solar system’s neutrino belt, contain a smaller fractional number of such more massive neutrinos, in addition to electron neutrinos?

Might a supernova explosion description be more than just release of gravitational potential energy, and more than just a bounce off an energy (i.e. mass density) nucleon (?) surface (simulations not consistent with such bounce?); and more than just a fusion process, since fuel has been markedly reduced? Instead might such explosion represent a qualitative and quantitative shift to a predominant fission process, with also perhaps a remnant, suggestive of such switch?

What is the most likely outcome of a supernova – no remnant? Might any database of supernova remnants (SNR) contain a compact object; a significant portion of original massive star? Would a pulsar be part of any such SNR database? Might likelihood of compact object be mass (10-15 solar mass?) dependent? What percentage of neutron stars are pulsars? If there were a supernova remnant, might it be of a lesser mass, such as red dwarf mass?

Or if a neutron star were a SN1987 remnant, then wouldn’t there be central x-ray detection, from strong magnetic field, near infall to magnetic pole? Might one have both a SN precursor neutron star, and also a somewhat lesser mass NS? But would there be sufficient fuel for SN in such scenario?

Could a supernova explosion sometimes leave behind a red dwarf remnant (i.e. SNR) fission star (such as .04 of 4 solar mass precursor), usually detectable only in infrared? Would infrared spectroscopy enable detection of such an object?

For example, might infrared spectroscopy distinguish between heat of expanding gas shell and an interior remnant source? Even if the site of SN1987 is obscured by gas clouds, inter-stellar debris etc., still might infrared spectroscopy reveal an object at SN1987 co-ordinates? Whereas gas clouds, and other diffuse infrared sources, might just reveal a slight non-specific pattern.

Thus would any such infrared spectroscopy detection (and thus revealed object?) seem consistent with the significance of a fission process in initiation of explosiveness of supernova phenomena?

Periodic Table

Chandra images

Theory of core-collapse of supernovae

 

October 6, 2016

Martian stromatolites?

Filed under: Letters from Ionia — Tags: , , — zankaon @ 4:11 pm

Might there be detectable stromatolites on Mars; left over from long ago nascent life? Perhaps would an all planet survey with synthetic aperture radar (SAR), with resolution of ~ 10 cm, suffice?

synthetic aperture radar

 

September 24, 2016

Neutrino magnetophere retention; charged particle enhancement of magnetic field?

Filed under: Letters from Ionia — Tags: , , , , — zankaon @ 2:23 pm

What is alleged incidence of solar neutrino per square centimeter penetrating us? Or is such a question just lore?

Wouldn’t massive neutrino with a magnetic moment be deflected by earth’s magnetosphere; then perhaps ‘sliding off’, and escaping to outer solar system? Or would such captured neutrinos flow into one of earth’s magnetic poles, and end up accumulating in center of earth; or re-cyclng in magnetosphere? If so, how many neutrino would accrue, for our magnetosphere, over age of earth?

For charged particles of solar wind – likewise? Also over 4.6 billion years, has this contributed to strenthening of magnetic field? Any other effect of accumulation of charge over such long period of time?

Might the stronger magnetic field of Mercury, despite it’s smaller mass, have been enhanced by capture and retention of charged particles from more intense solar wind, for over billions of years? Hence consistent with such effect (albeit comparatively lesser extent?) for earth?

If all stars, including compact objects, have a magnetic field, then a contribution of charged quanta to enhancement of such field? Thus also for black hole, an accumulation, and influx of charged quanta recycling in internal and external magnetosphere; giving rise to a charged compact object?

September 17, 2016

JunoCam polar jovian images – turbulence suggestive of upwelling? In contrast, a possible underlying Saturnian ice surface?

Filed under: Letters from Ionia — Tags: , , , , , , — zankaon @ 12:34 pm

Might NASA JunoCam images of Jupiter’s polar region, from 23,000 miles, suggest turbulence and upwelling? Altenatively, rather than just atmospherics, might one be seeing in part a rock/ice surface (percentage ice and/or rock)? Or perhaps more ice crystalization in atmosphere?

Closer images are less suggestive of an underlying ice surface. Do recent Juno close up images suggest turbulence, and hence an upwelling of hotter gases; hence not consistent with an underlying surface? So seemingly are Jupiter and Saturn respective poles quite dfferent? Would synthetic aperture radar (SAR) distinguish any underlying ice surface?

Would rapid rotation (~10 hrs) of Jupiter affect polar region atmospheric circulation etc., giving rise to a different presentation?

However wouldn’t the lower density of Jupiter, compared to density of terrestrials, seem consistent with a gaseous predominance, and not even just a predominant ice/liquid interior?

Might one even entertain the possibility of just a gaseous jovian ‘moon’? Is the Great Red Spot (GRS) more than just a cyclonic-like disturbance? Is it’s density extremely different (5-10x ?) than ambient clouds; hence a much greater (terrestrial scale) mass? Sufficient mass to designate it a gaseous object in fixed co-rotation with visible ambient clouds? More specifically, consider it’s depth equal to it’s diameter, giving ellipsoid volume. Could ellipsoid shape, vs conical or cylindrical, be ascertained by oblique SAR radar imaging? That is, might an underlying curvature vs flat surface be consisent with such ellipsoid shape?

Then for ascertained density, obtain mass. Then compare such mass to a Titan’s estimated all ice density mass, to see if GRS has comparable mass.

Might past ‘comet’, or jovian moon icebergs, collision suggest hitting a surface, rather than atmospheric/liquid explosions?

Just as there are external rings/bands, might there also possibly be a somewhat interior orbiting band(s), or spherical shell, of rock/ice of sufficient density and thickness to constitute a surface, at a certain depth beneath clouds? Hence accounting for ‘comet’ impact pattern?

Perhaps consider a primordial scenario, wherein one has extreme higher angular momentum forming icy clouds, with impurities forming denser conglomerates aggregating (i.e. ice condensation from millimeter grains to decimeter pebbles in 1000 years; the latter constituting protoplanetary disks?) (1), giving sediment-like icy layering accumulating gradually over 4.6 Byrs; resulting in a surface of certain density and structural thickness, in orbit between cloud layers?

Perhaps aeolian effect of high velocity winds contributing to surface formation, as on earth. Might such surface have initially formed much deeper, and then vis a vis exchange of momentum have migrated to outward region? Yet over all planet density unaffected; hence maintaining a non-terrestial profile?

Might one even have other variations for different hot (and for ours) Jupiter’s, such as interior solid ‘moon’ formation, co-rotating with planet, but in the clouds?

Would a Cassini like Saturnian orbit sweeping up obliquely from lower latitude to poles be suitable for detecting via synthetic aperture radar any interior bands, interior ‘moon’, or even planetary wide thick spherical shell? Perhaps redirect Cassini to Jupiter – a 1-2 year voyage?

Might Saturnian circumpolar hexagonal pattern of supposed jet(s) flow be guided (or about?) by an underlying surface , such as water ice with ammonium hydrosulfide  (all of interior area of hexagon?) at a certain depth below cloud top? Analogy to circumpolar Antarctica current (fluid) and it’s enclosed surface?

Or perhaps an analogy to polygon subsurface formation in permafrost? Perhaps utilize synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of Cassini for such possible surface detection? Or for an ice surface (i.e. object), perhaps infrared spectroscopy would be more suitable. Also polygon formatiion has been observed on Mars; from sub-surface ice.

One could consider rotation of such polygon, but at a rate slower than for any south pole markers in gaseous mileau. That is, such solid ice surface would have a moment of inertia, and hence a slower angular velocity than for gaseous south saturnian pole.

Do such two examples, one of Saturnian icy polygon surface (1/2 continental diameter?), and the other of markedly different gas density (Great Red Spot), represent objects in ‘orbit’ within atmospheric fluid mileau of 2 gas giants?

Since Jupiter/earth radius is ~11/1, then for Jupiter circumference of ~66 times greater, but with rotation period of ~ 10 hrs, what would the top layer cloud velocity be; and would it be in step with observed clouds’ high velocities? Lesser velocity for near poles?

Might strong magnetic fields of Mercury, Earth, and Jupiter all suggest similarities to their interiors? That is, perhaps a surface with a deeper liquid (iron?) inner core, rheologically flowing; in addition to a solid core? Contrast to comparatively lesser magnetic field of Sun, perhaps due to a circulating plasma, rather than liquid? However see above density argument caveat.

If upwelling of gases at jovian pole (suggested by turbulence?), then detectable ammonia or ammonium? All resulting from higher temperature breaking of triple high energy bond of N_2 molecule, with formation of lower energy NH bond and HCN at deeper sources?

If one has such fixed nitrogen in the jovian atmosphere, together with upwelling heat (infrared radiation), together with water vapour, HCN etc., might this seem suitable for catalytic synthesis of organic compounds (amide dehydration polymerization?) and even possible nascent life – such as on particulate matter surface? (1)

Might analogy to methane hydrates provide a way to preserve functional organics, encased in ice, with intermittent melting for different convection induced temperature changes – an earlier way? Perhaps the inner ice surface also providing some stability. Also perhaps later fatty acid ether linkage dehydration polymerization? Another alternative origin of life scenario?

many and strange are the universes, that float like bubbles in the foam, upon the river of time.                                   A. C. Clark

Incidentally might jovian lightning, and hence charge seperation, involve NH_4 ammonium cation; what would be a suitable anion – hydrosulfide/sulfate, or hydroxyl?

Ice condensation as a planet formation mechanism

Saturnian composition  arXiv:1609.06324v1 [astro-ph.EP] 20 Sep 2016.

Juno instrumentation

www.nasa.gov/

Saturn’s polar atmosphere

synthetic aperture radar (SAR)

Mar’s polygon formation,  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deuteronilus_Mensae 

Juno’s close up view of Jupiter pole.      nasa

(1) astrochemistry

Jupiter’s interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft
S. J. Bolton, A. Adriani, V. Adumitroaie, M. Allison, J. Anderson, S. Atreya, J. Bloxham, S. Brown, J. E. P. Connerney, E. DeJong, W. Folkner, D. Gautier, D. Grassi, S. Gulkis, T. Guillot, C. Hansen, W. B. Hubbard, L. Iess, A. Ingersoll, M. Janssen, J. Jorgensen, Y. Kaspi, S. M. Levin, C. Li, J. Lunine, Y. Miguel, A. Mura, G. Orton, T. Owen, M. Ravine, E. Smith, P. Steffes, E. Stone, D. Stevenson, R. Thorne, J. Waite, D. Durante, R. W. Ebert, T. K. Greathouse, V. Hue, M. Parisi, J. R. Szalay, R. Wilson.

Science26 May 2017 : 821-825 

polygon at Saturnian pole nasa

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