Might the short period orbit of comet 67P have occurred from interaction with another body, through exchange of momentum, relocated to inner aspect of solar system? Likewise for hot Jupiter exo-planet gas giants? But where is Lagrange point for Jupiter and Sun? Why wouldn’t 67P comet continue it’s orbital trajectory into Sun’s gravitational well? It’s as if there were a ‘curvature valley’ ; but where then is the missing mass? Alternatively, might 67P’s current unusual orbit be stable; just the result of historical event(s)?
Assuming neutrinos have mass (~.01-.1 ev?), how many neutrinos have been emitted by Sun over ~4.6 Byrs? How much mass equivalent has been loss? What is the number of neutrinos emitted per second x 10^8 sec./yr. x 4.6 Byrs? Electron volts, ergs, joules. 1 ev = 1.6 x 10^-19 J, and 1 kg= 9 x 10^16 J. So what is the accumulative neutrino mass equivalence? Is it gravitationally significant? Also what is the relative total mass, in comparison of asteroid belt, KBO belt, and Oort Cloud?
Might there be significant hidden mass in solar system? Not percentage wise in comparison to Sun, but sufficient to account for some apparent anomalies?
Might there be an inapparent neutrino belt ; would it be near to, or in solar plane? Might such considered low momentum (work against gravitational field?) orbiting massive neutrinos account for apparent anomalous abridged orbit of 67P comet? Might such comet`s orbit be influenced by such considered belt of neutrinos’ mass; or is such mass too small?
In terms of resonance, might such neutrino belt ‘gravitate’ to an orbit between asteroid belt and Jupiter, if solar nebula was just out to Neptune orbit? Or might such neutrino belt orbit be beyond Oort cloud, at ~50,000 AU i.e. ~.24 lyrs. For comparison, Proxima centauri is at ~15,000 AU. Likewise a neutrino belt for all stars, including pulsars and black holes?
That is for tapering gravitational field, could such massive clouds, belts be extremely far out for all stars; indicative of greater extent of such tapered field? Proxima centauri’s far out orbit would also seem consistent with such scenario.
E=mc^2 indicates that a small mass contains a lot of energy; conversely, one requires an enormous number of electron volts to result in macroscopic gravitational effect. For example, 1 solar mass of 10^30 kg is estimated to be ~10^66 neutrinos of 1 ev. Also Milky Way mass of 10^12 solar masses would be ~10^78 neutrinos of 1 ev. Would neutrinos still be a dark matter candidate? also see solar neutrino belt neutrino detector details https://sites.google.com/site/zankaon in revised c/p/c 236.
Would cubesats (satellites), together with small volume (1-8 cm^3?) deuterium water, and with Cenrenkov photo detector (or radiation detector?) be of sufficient sensitivity to detect such neutrino belt? Any such increase in radiation would be abrupt; not unlike for electric and magnetic respective potentials; and unlike inverse gravitational potential? Have cubesat orbits encompassing any surmised additional resonance belt(s) for our solar system? Would cosmic cascade pattern be sufficiently different from low momentum neutrino interaction; thus built in comparison control?
Nevertheless doesn’t a ‘curvature valley ‘ requires mass? Perhaps examine the space enclosed by 67P comet’s orbit, but in infrared band; looking for optically inapparent set i.e. ‘cloud’ of small objects with sufficient collective mass to account for such unexpected curvature and resultant short period comet’s unusual orbit.
Instead of focusing on 67P comet’s geodesic, perhaps one could consider entire orbit as a geometric object. Then might one be observing a snapshot of an ongoing process of increasing eccentricity (i.e. further elongation) of such orbit (i.e. geometric object) by gravitational field of Sun? Hence would such comet’s unusual orbit be better understood as an overall geometric object’s changing shape and extent; no inverse cube tidal interactions – too far out. Rather just inverse change in gravitational potential under solar gravitation influence?
Was such short period comet left over from early solar system? However if it intersected earth’s orbit, then over 4 byrs a collision would have occurred. Reference indicates perihelion of ~1.2 AU ; so no intersection with earth’s orbit. Thus might it’s present orbit and period have occurred earlier, and persisted? Was it originally from KBO region, or further out? Would it’s inclination angle of 7 degrees to elliptic suggest a KBO origin? Whereas a higher inclination angle would seem to suggest a spherical symmetrical Oort Cloud origin.
Might infrared spectroscopy (stretching, bending, vibration) of such comet 67P surface ice be consistent with a stronger covalent like hydrogen bond for between water and/or ammonia molecules? Hence consistent with 4 byr old ice, perhaps not unlike so-called alleged sub-surface ancient water Martian rock ice; however a very different more exposed environment. see December 28, 2013 Measuring temperature of space via molecular vibration etc.? Dark Age Cryochemistry?
Do many asteroids not have surface ice, unlike comets? Why? Over 4 byrs might the collision potential (i.e. density) of a set of asteroids be greater than for KBO and Oort cloud objects? Hence more sublimation for heated surface ice for the former? For example, Vista in asteroid belt, is an example of not only early differentiation, but also subsequent collisional history. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/dawn/news/dawn20120510.html However Ceres’s composition is largely ice; indicative of greater water abundance for different place and time of formation? Also if a smaller object had an atmosphere, then perhaps originating from sub-surface ice and ongoing ice geysers, not unlike Saturn’s moon Enceladus.
What about Titan’s markedly different hazy (hydrocarbons?) atmosphere? Not from uv effect on methane alone; rather sub-surface extended carbon chain formation (alkanes etc.?) perhaps associated with shearing (frictional temperature increase?) hydro-ice vents with interior conduit surfaces containing metals as catalytic impurities? Or cryo-chemistry from impurities of ice adsorbed on dust grains – slower solid state surface cryo-chemistry? Then sublimation of surface ice, contributing to atmosphere?
For example, if present in Titan atmosphere, where might alkanes carbon chains come from? Perhaps from synthesis of alkyl halides, together with heat, resulting in intermediate radicals, in turn interacting; ending with carbon chain extension? Might there be enough focused light (off ice crystals?), heat, and halogens – chlorine, bromine, or halides on Titan, or in atmosphere? Or perhaps alkylation of ammonia with methyl halides to give alkyl amine extended carbon chain compounds? Ammonia perhaps, but with presence of halogens or methyl halide water ice impurities? Perhaps utilization of metals, such as lithium and copper, for alkyl chain length extension? Any comparison to possible in situ molecular cloud cryo-chemistry?
More recently ALMA data has been interpreted as spectroscopically indicating C_2H_5CN ethyl cyanide at ~200 km high in atmosphere of Titan, formed supposedly via photochemistry. But where is light intensity coming from? Any N_2 abundance in Titan atmosphere would have a very strong triple bond; likewise for forming CN triple bond. Is such chemistry feasible in Titan’s atmosphere? see reference.
Also is apparent riverine system on Titan suggestive of current, or recent, flowing surface fluid? If flowing ammonia surface liquid; then required comparatively higher temperature range of ~ 195 -240 K.
Titan has an atmosphere; hence enhancement of surface temperature? Liquid hydrogen forms at < 20 K. So for example for surface temperature range of ~50-100 K, then the possibility of surface liquid nitrogen for 63-90 K range , and/or liquid oxygen for 54-77 K range. Perhaps also the possibility of nitrogen oxides such as N0, N0_2, N_20 etc., components of smog for earth’s atmosphere? But triple bond N_2 is of high energy, and thus less reactive. Perhaps ammonia, methyl halide – giving alkyl amines? Nitrogen oxides
A key question would seem to be what is Titan’s surface temperature? For Titan’s surface, for temperature range of 50-100 Kelvin, might one paint a scenario of perhaps frozen ammonia lakes, with liquid nitrogen flowing riverine system, with perhaps in part alkylamine extended carbon chains, as part of assumed hydrocarbon atmospheric mix?
Alternatively, because of nitrogen’s narrow liquid temperature range (63-90 K), might one have a physical phase change homologous to that of water ice/liquid? That is, for example, might one have frozen surface nitrogen with liquid nitrogen beneath for both ‘lakes’ and for riverine system? Analogously so, possibly for oxygen narrow liquid temperature range (54-77 K) for ‘lake’ and riverine system’s ice/liquid phase change? Or possibly a mixture of both, since N_2 triple bond is quite inert, as here on earth.
Would any of this seem consistent with Titan’s surface findings and atmospheric coloration? In addition to surface temperature determination, might one also land cube sat probes on Titan’s ‘lakes’ to see if impact is consistent with solid ice or liquid? Also a probe approaching riverine system, for better imaging and ground penetrating high frequency radar; likewise for ‘lakes’ ?
Alternatively might the darken coloration of Titan be similar to Martian darker coloration, more evident from afar? And for Titan, might one have ice crystals in atmosphere, as well as light reflection off icy surface, giving illusory distorted light imagery? Likewise for any Pluto’s blurry discoloration (moving?) imagery, from afar? Or might one have cryovolcanoes spewing out a mineralized fluid (N_2 ?), giving a discolorized ‘Tharsis like’ plateau effect?
In addition to laboratory cryochemistry simulations, for Jovian, Saturnian satellites, and Pluto etc., perhaps one could use orbital reflective or absorptive spectroscopy; utilizing a low angle ‘limb’ view of, for example,l Triton surface or atmosphere, respectively. Greater brightness of surface and atmosphere from ice crystal reflectiveness?
Might Titan exploration be easier if main spacecraft is firstly put into Saturian orbit; then is gradual catch up with outermost Saturian moon, Titan feasible? Then parallel tracking of Titan; hence avoiding an impossible Titan orbit? Thus a master ship, with cube satellites, to Saturian system’s Titan; with successive release of such cube satellites (6 etc.?) with multiple experiments, and competing teams?
Likewise repeat New Horizon 2 (identical), but crashing into largest KBO, Pluto, of an otherwise very low density Kuiper belt? Incidentally, in comparison of asteroid belt, Kuiper belt, and Oort Cloud, for assumption of ~ same total mass, then for such successive increased volume, thus progressively lower density of objects; assuming some minimal size for objects. All such belts, clouds have very low number density.
Perhaps utilize an array of cube satellites, launched at various times, and at various angular displacements, with greater propulsion for closer to Pluto launch. So perhaps an earlier launch of array of 6 cube satellites would suffice to ensure that Pluto is not missed on a fast fly by.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titan_%28moon chemistry caveats?
Observations of Icy Universe http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1501.05317v1 [astro-ph.GA] 21 Jan 2015
http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov/solarsystem/ astrochemistry lab 691
http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov/691/cosmicice/spectra.html cosmic Ice laboratory
Ethyl cyanide on Titan: Spectroscopic detection and mapping using ALMA http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.5325